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Application of Fluidic Control within a PlanoConvex Singlet Lens
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering^{1}, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521; College of Optical Sciences^{2}, Dept. of Ophthalmology & Vision Science^{3}, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 This paper focuses on designing a computer code for the purpose of developing a systematic method for continuous control of the focal length of a planoconvex fluidic lens and utilizing the code for studying the optical behavior of a planoconvex fluidic lens. A syringe, which was controlled by a syringe pump controller, was utilized for fluid control. The code decreased the operation time for the syringe pump controller by replacing the manual push of buttons with a few clicks on a computer. By utilizing the code, the focal length of the fluidic lens was measured as a function of the curvature of the lens’ flexible membrane. This was accomplished for three lasers of differing wavelengths (red: 633 nm; green: 543 nm; blue: 488 nm). A graphical relationship was found for the three wavelengths: as the lens curvature increased, the focal length decreased. In addition, as expected, the longer wavelength outputted a longer focal length per lens curvature. Fluidic Lenses, Focal Length, Wavelength, Fluidic Control 1. S. P. Casey, "Liquid Lens: Advances in Adaptive Optics," (paper presented at the Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, Shanghai, China, November 2, 2009), <http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ACP2009FE3>. Transient Antihydrogen Production in a Paul Trap
Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, 06459. Although positrons and antiprotons have vastly different masses, we show that it is possible to store both particle species simultaneously in a Paul trap, using the space charge of the positron cloud as a trap for the antiprotons. Computer simulations confirm the validity of this new trapping mechanism. In addition, the simulations show transient antihydrogen production that manifests itself in the intermittent production of bound positronantiproton Rydberg states. Since realistic trapping parameters are used in the simulations, (i) simultaneous positronantiproton trapping and (ii) transient antihydrogen formation should be experimentally observable in a Paul trap. Strategies are suggested to lengthen the lifetime of antihydrogen in the Paul trap. Paul trap, antihydrogen, positron, antiproton [1] R. G. Lerner and G. L. Trigg, Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd edition (VCH Publishers, New York, 1991). Measurement of the Speed and Energy Distribution of Cosmic Ray Muons
Grant Remmen and Elwood McCreary Department of Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN, 55455 The time of flight distribution of cosmic ray muons was measured for various spacings of detectors filled with plastic scintillator, allowing for a determination of the mean speed, as well as constraint of the energy spectrum below 0.95c. The use of a timetoamplitude converter allowed for precise timing measurements and resolution of the shape of the timing distribution for each spacing, necessary for constraining the energy spectrum. The mean speed of cosmic ray muons was found to be (2.978 ± 0.007) 10^{8} ms^{1} = (0.993±0.002)c. The energy spectrum below 0.34 GeV was found to be consistent with a flat distribution and was parameterized with a power law of the form n(E) dE ∝ E^{α}dE, with α best fit by (7.9 ± 9.1)*10^{4}. cosmic rays, elementary particles: muons, energy spectrum, relativistic velocity measurement, [1] Aglietta, M. et al. (1998). Phys. Rev. D 58(092005). A Geometrical Interpretation of Bell’s Inequalities
Taylor Firman University of Puget Sound Bell’s Inequalities express constraints on the correlations of three random, binary variables and they can be applied to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. In an analysis of the theory behind these inequalities, this paper suggests a geometrical interpretation of Bell’s Inequality in the form of a tetrahedron in “correlation space” to which correlation measurements are restricted. Using correlated photons produced through spontaneous parametric downconversion, we were able to experimentally demonstrate a set of measurements lying outside of this tetrahedron, negating the binary nature of hiddenvariable theories. Bell's Inequality, hidden variables, EPR paradox, correlation space [1] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, and N. Rosen, Can Quantum Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete? Phys. Rev. 47, 777780 (1935). Effects of Catalyst Components on Carbon Nanotubes Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Tasha Adams*, Binh Duong, and Supapan Seraphin *Department of Optical Engineering, Norfolk State University In this paper, we study the role of each of the four chemical components of a catalyst system used in growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Our goal is to be able to grow desirable carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which is believed to be the most practical growth method for CNTs. The catalyst used in our process is known for inducing Yjunction CNTs. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been a thorough investigation on the importance of each chemical component used during the CNT growth. To identify the impact that each component has on CNT growth, we prepared nine samples by either excluding or doubling the amount of each component (iron nitrate, aluminum oxide, and molybdenum). We used one of three different solvents including methanol, DI water, or ethanol for the catalyst solutions. We found that 1) all three catalyst components are needed in effective growth of CNTs; 2) molybdenum has a significant role in CNT growth and yjunctions in our system; 3) the solvent has noteworthy effect on the degree of CNT crystallinity of the nanotubes and 4) the growth of multiple samples at the same time may cause interaction from one sample to the next. YJunction, Iron Nitrate Nonahydrate, Aluminum Oxide, and Molybdenum Acetylacetonate 1. C. Oncel, Y. Yurum. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis via the Catalytic CVD Method: A Review on the Effect of Reaction Parameters. Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nanostructures, 14 (2006): 17–37. SDSSII: Determination of Shape and Color Parameter Coefficients for SALTII Model
L. Dojcsak*, J. Marriner *Lawrence Technological University, 21000 West Ten Mile Rd., Southfield, MI, 48075 In this study we look at the SALTII model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, α and β respectively, in the SALTII model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with χ2/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for α and β. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SALTII, Supernova Analysis Gunn, J. E. et al. 1998 AJ, 116, 3040 Anharmonic Oscillator Potentials: Exact and Perturbation Results
Benjamin T. Floyd, Amanda M. Ludes, Chia Moua, Allan A. Ostle, and Oren B. Varkony Department of Physics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska, 68182 In order to determine the first four energy levels of our anharmonic potential, we will compute the first four eigenvalues of the anharmonic oscillator potential with a quartic term using Heun polynomials and Maple software packages. We will then compare them to the results obtained from the conventional perturbation method, treating the quartic term as perturbation up to the third order. Through this it can be shown that generally the two methods agree well with each other when the perturbing potential is weak. Nevertheless, the perturbation results will start to deviate from those of the exact solutions at stronger perturbation potentials and higher excited states. Perturbation Method, Anharmonic Potential, Anharmonic Oscillator 1. C. M. Bender and T. T. Wu, Phys. Rev., 184, 12311260, (1969). 