Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy
Jeremiah F. Wilson, Sesha S. Srinivasan, Bria M. Moore, Lamont Henderson, Sammie Ely III, P. C. Sharma
Department of Physics, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088
The objective of this project is to create clean fuel for transportation using hydrogen powered by solar energy. Hydrogen has been generated by solar photovoltaic (PV) array and then collected for data analysis to demonstrate efficiency of the hydrogen production in all the steps of the experiment. The hydrogen produced from the electrolysis process was either stored in a metal hydride canister or directly fed into Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell to generate electricity. A hydrogen fuel cell remote control car has successfully designed, and demonstrates at least one hour operation per hydrogen charging at room temperature.
Solar Energy, Hydrogen Production, Electrolysis, PEM Fuel Cell, Clean Fuel Transportation, Hydrogen Storage, Metal Hydrides, Electrolyzer, Energy Efficiency.
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How Tongue Size and Roughness Affect Lapping
M. J. Hubbard and K. M. Hay
Department of Physics, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447
The biomechanics of domestic cat lapping (Felis catus) and domestic dog lapping (Canis familiaris) is currently under debate. Lapping mechanics in vertebrates with incomplete cheeks (cheeks that cannot form suction for oral liquid ingestion, often carnivorous vertebrates1, 9), such as cats and dogs, is a balance of inertia and the force of gravity likely optimized for ingestion and physical necessities. Physiology dictates vertebrate mass, which dictates vertebrate tongue size, which dictates lapping mechanics to achieve optimum liquid ingestion; with either a touch lapping, scooping, or a hybrid lapping method. The physics of this optimized system then determines how high a column of liquid can be raised before it collapses due to gravity, and therefore, lapping frequency. Through tongue roughness model variation experiments it was found that pore-scale geometrical roughness does not appear to affect lapping or liquid uptake. Through tongue size model variation experiments it was found that there is a critical tongue radius in the range of 25 mm to 35 mm above which touch lapping is no longer an efficient way to uptake liquid. Vertebrates with incomplete cheeks may use a touch lapping method to ingest water if their tongue radius is less than this critical radius and use an alternative ingestion method if their tongue radius is larger.
lapping; lapping frequency; intraoral transport; tongue; tongue size; tongue roughness; Felis catus; Canis familiaris; incomplete cheeks
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